Impact of post-COVID-19 olfactory disorders on quality of life, hedonic experiences and psychiatric dimensions in general population.

Publication date: Feb 08, 2024

Olfactory disorders in COVID-19 impact quality of life and may lead to psychological impairments. Prevalence ranges from 8 to 85%, persisting in about 30% of cases. This study aimed to evaluate the 6-month post-COVID-19 impact on quality of life, hedonic experiences, anxiety and depression due to olfactory disorders. Additionally, it sought to compare psychophysical tests and self-perceived olfactory evaluations. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted over baseline (T0) and 6 months (T1) on individuals with persistent olfactory disorders post-COVID-19 for more than 6 weeks. Psychophysical tests employed the Sniffin’ Sticks Test(R) (TDI score), and self-perceived olfactory evaluation used a Visual Analogue Scale. Quality of life was assessed with an Olfactive Disorder Questionnaire and the French version of the Quality of Life and Diet Questionnaire. Hedonic experiences were gauged using the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale, while anxiety and depression dimensions were measured by The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, The Post Traumatic Stress Checklist Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Participants were classified into the “normosmic group” (NG) and the “olfactory disorders group” (ODG) at T0 and T1 based on the TDI score. Were included 56 participants (58. 93% women, 41. 07% men) with a mean age of 39. 04 years and a mean duration of post-COVID-19 olfactory disorders of 5. 32 months. At T1, ODG had a significantly lower quality of life and hedonic experiences than NG. No significant differences in anxiety and depression dimensions were observed between groups. At T0, psychophysical tests and self-perceived olfactory evaluations were significantly correlated with quality of life and hedonic experiences in both groups. At T1, self-perceived olfactory evaluation in NG correlated significantly with quality of life, hedonic experiences, anxiety and depression dimensions, whereas ODG only correlated with hedonic experiences. Individuals with persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory disorders after six months demonstrated compromised quality of life and hedonic experiences. Self-perceived olfactory evaluation played a more significant role in influencing quality of life and the dimension of anxiety and depression than the psychophysical presence of olfactory disorders. These findings emphasize the importance of considering patients’ perceptions to comprehensively assess the impact of olfactory disorders on their well-being. ClinicalTrials. gov number (ID: NCT04799977).

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Concepts Keywords
Covid Cognition
Diet Covid-19
Men Emotion
Nct04799977 Hedonic experiences (8 words)
Psychiatry Odor perception
Olfactory disorders


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease IDO quality
disease VO population
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease VO vaccination
disease MESH infection
disease MESH insomnia
disease MESH cognitive impairments
disease IDO history
disease MESH neoplasia
disease VO report
disease MESH PTSD
drug DRUGBANK Polyethylene glycol
disease MESH psychiatric disorders
disease VO Rho
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
disease VO time
disease MESH long Covid
disease MESH perceptual disorder
disease MESH olfactory impairment
disease MESH nasal blockage
drug DRUGBANK Dihydrotachysterol
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease MESH depressive disorders
disease VO protocol
disease IDO symptom
disease VO effective
disease VO nose
disease VO organization
pathway KEGG Coronavirus disease
drug DRUGBANK Potassium Chloride
disease MESH taste disorders
disease MESH Allergy
disease MESH neurodegenerative diseases
disease MESH Asthma
pathway KEGG Asthma
disease VO volume
disease MESH sequelae
disease MESH etiology
disease MESH clinical relevance
disease MESH schizophrenia
drug DRUGBANK L-Leucine
drug DRUGBANK Diethylstilbestrol
drug DRUGBANK Delorazepam
disease MESH common cold
disease MESH psychological distress

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