Takotsubo syndrome and vaccines: a systematic review.

Publication date: Feb 12, 2024

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a rare complication of vaccination. In this study, we sought to provide insight into the characteristics of reported TTS induced by vaccination. We did a systematic review, searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Ovid MEDLINE, Journals@Ovid, and Scopus databases up to 26 April 2023 to identify case reports or case series of vaccine-induced TTS. We then extracted and summarized the data from these reports. Eighteen reports were identified, with a total of 19 patients with TTS associated with vaccinations. Of the 19 included patients, the majority were female (n = 13, 68. 4%) with a mean age of 56. 6 +/- 21. 9 years. Seventeen patients developed TTS after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination, 14 of whom received an mRNA vaccination. Two cases of TTS occurred after influenza vaccination. Among the 19 patients, 17 (89. 5%) completed transthoracic echocardiography and 16 (84. 2%) underwent angiography procedures. Seven patients (36. 8%) completed cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The median time to symptom onset was 2 (inter-quartile range, 1-4) days. The most common symptoms were chest pain (68. 4%), dyspnoea (57. 9%), and digestive symptoms (31. 6%). A total of 57. 9% of patients developed nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, myalgia, diaphoresis, and fever. Among the 16 reported cases of TTS, 15 patients (93. 8%) exhibited elevated cardiac troponin levels, while among the nine reported cases, eight patients (88. 9%) had elevated natriuretic peptide levels. All patients had electrocardiographic changes: ST-segment change (47. 1%), T-wave inversion (58. 8%), and prolonged corrected QT interval (35. 3%). The most common TTS type was apical ballooning (88. 2%). Treatment during hospitalization typically included beta-blockers (44. 4%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (33. 3%), and diuretics (22. 2%). After treatment, 81. 3% of patients were discharged with improved symptoms. Among this group, nine patients (56. 3%) were reported to have recovered ventricular wall motion during follow-up. Two patients (12. 5%) died following vaccination without resuscitation attempts. TTS is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of vaccination. Typical TTS symptoms such as chest pain and dyspnoea should be considered alarming symptoms, though nonspecific symptoms are common. The risks of such rare adverse events should be balanced against the risks of infection.

Concepts Keywords
9years COVID-19 vaccine
Died Influenza vaccine
Electrocardiographic Systematic review
Influenza Takotsubo syndrome
Vaccinations

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH Takotsubo syndrome
disease VO vaccination
disease VO vaccine
disease MESH coronavirus disease 2019
disease MESH influenza
disease VO time
disease IDO symptom
disease MESH chest pain
drug DRUGBANK Angiotensin II
disease MESH infection
disease VO COVID-19 vaccine

Original Article

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