Implementation of contact precautions for multidrug-resistant organisms in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era: An updated national Emerging Infections Network (EIN) survey.

Publication date: Feb 14, 2024

To understand how healthcare facilities employ contact precautions for patients with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era and explore changes since 2014. Cross-sectional survey. Emerging Infections Network (EIN) physicians involved in infection prevention or hospital epidemiology. In September 2022, we sent via email an 8-question survey on contact precautions and adjunctive measures to reduce MDRO transmission in inpatient facilities. We also asked about changes since the COVID-19 pandemic. We used descriptive statistics to summarize data and compared results to a similar survey administered in 2014. Of 708 EIN members, 283 (40%) responded to the survey and 201 reported working in infection prevention. A majority of facilities (66% and 69%) routinely use contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) respectively, compared to 93% and 92% in 2014. Nearly all (>90%) use contact precautions for Candida auris, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. More variability was reported for carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing gram-negative organisms. Compared to 2014, fewer hospitals perform active surveillance for MRSA and VRE. Overall, 90% of facilities used chlorhexidine gluconate bathing in all or select inpatients, and 53% used ultraviolet light or hydrogen peroxide vapor disinfection at discharge. Many respondents (44%) reported changes to contact precautions since COVID-19 that remain in place. Heterogeneity exists in the use of transmission-based precautions and adjunctive infection prevention measures aimed at reducing MDRO transmission. This variation reflects a need for updated and specific guidance, as well as further research on the use of contact precautions in healthcare facilities.

Concepts Keywords
Acinetobacter Carbapenem
Coronavirus Compared
Inpatient Contact


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19 pandemic
disease MESH Infections
disease IDO infection
drug DRUGBANK Meticillin
drug DRUGBANK Vancomycin
drug DRUGBANK Hydrogen peroxide

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