Assessing the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on the risk of household transmission during delta variant circulation: a population-based data linkage cohort study.

Publication date: Jan 01, 2024

Data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness to reduce transmission of infection in household settings are limited. We examined the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on Delta variant transmission within households in an infection-nacEFve population. This was a population-based data linkage cohort study in the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area, New South Wales, Australia based on cases observed in June-November 2021. In households with ≥1 confirmed COVID-19 case, we calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) for the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, by vaccination status (unvaccinated, partially vaccinated, fully vaccinated, or waning) and type of vaccines (mRNA or vector-based) received by both index cases and household contacts. In 20,651 households with a single index case, 18,542 of 72,768 (25%) household contacts tested PCR-positive ≤14 days after their respective index case. Household contacts with partial, full, or waning mRNA vaccination had aORs of 0. 46 (95% CI 0. 40-0. 52), 0. 36 (95% CI 0. 32-0. 41) and 0. 64 (95% CI 0. 51-0. 80) compared to unvaccinated contacts, while for vector vaccines the corresponding aORs were 0. 77 (95% CI 0. 67-0. 89), 0. 65 (95% CI 0. 55-0. 76), and 0. 64 (95% CI 0. 39-1. 05). Full mRNA-vaccination in index cases compared to non-vaccination was associated with aORs between 0. 09 and 0. 21 depending on the vaccination status of household contacts. Full vaccination of household contacts reduced the odds to acquire infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in household settings by two thirds for mRNA vaccines and by one third for vector vaccines. For index cases, being fully vaccinated with an mRNA vaccine reduced the odds of onwards transmission by four-fifths compared to unvaccinated index cases. Full vaccination offered stronger protection than partial vaccination, particularly for mRNA vaccines, but with reduced effects when the last vaccination preceded exposure by ≥3 months. New South Wales Ministry of Health.

Concepts Keywords
Australia COVID-19
June Households
Pcr Infection
Vaccinated SARS-CoV-2
Transmission
Vaccination
Vaccines

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease VO vaccination
disease VO population
disease VO vaccine effectiveness
disease MESH infection
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO unvaccinated
disease VO vaccinated
disease VO vaccine

Original Article

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