Cognitive Symptoms of Post-COVID-19 Condition and Daily Functioning.

Publication date: Feb 05, 2024

The frequent occurrence of cognitive symptoms in post-COVID-19 condition has been described, but the nature of these symptoms and their demographic and functional factors are not well characterized in generalizable populations. To investigate the prevalence of self-reported cognitive symptoms in post-COVID-19 condition, in comparison with individuals with prior acute SARS-CoV-2 infection who did not develop post-COVID-19 condition, and their association with other individual features, including depressive symptoms and functional status. Two waves of a 50-state nonprobability population-based internet survey conducted between December 22, 2022, and May 5, 2023. Participants included survey respondents aged 18 years and older. Post-COVID-19 condition, defined as self-report of symptoms attributed to COVID-19 beyond 2 months after the initial month of illness. Seven items from the Neuro-QoL cognition battery assessing the frequency of cognitive symptoms in the past week and patient Health Questionnaire-9. The 14 767 individuals reporting test-confirmed COVID-19 illness at least 2 months before the survey had a mean (SD) age of 44. 6 (16. 3) years; 568 (3. 8%) were Asian, 1484 (10. 0%) were Black, 1408 (9. 5%) were Hispanic, and 10 811 (73. 2%) were White. A total of 10 037 respondents (68. 0%) were women and 4730 (32. 0%) were men. Of the 1683 individuals reporting post-COVID-19 condition, 955 (56. 7%) reported at least 1 cognitive symptom experienced daily, compared with 3552 of 13 084 (27. 1%) of those who did not report post-COVID-19 condition. More daily cognitive symptoms were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting at least moderate interference with functioning (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 1. 31 [95% CI, 1. 25-1. 36]; adjusted [AOR], 1. 30 [95% CI, 1. 25-1. 36]), lesser likelihood of full-time employment (unadjusted OR, 0. 95 [95% CI, 0. 91-0. 99]; AOR, 0. 92 [95% CI, 0. 88-0. 96]) and greater severity of depressive symptoms (unadjusted coefficient, 1. 40 [95% CI, 1. 29-1. 51]; adjusted coefficient 1. 27 [95% CI, 1. 17-1. 38). After including depressive symptoms in regression models, associations were also found between cognitive symptoms and at least moderate interference with everyday functioning (AOR, 1. 27 [95% CI, 1. 21-1. 33]) and between cognitive symptoms and lower odds of full-time employment (AOR, 0. 92 [95% CI, 0. 88-0. 97]). The findings of this survey study of US adults suggest that cognitive symptoms are common among individuals with post-COVID-19 condition and associated with greater self-reported functional impairment, lesser likelihood of full-time employment, and greater depressive symptom severity. Screening for and addressing cognitive symptoms is an important component of the public health response to post-COVID-19 condition.

Open Access PDF

Concepts Keywords
Depressive Adult
Hispanic Chronic Disease
Models Cognition
Month COVID-19
Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
Quality of Life
Self Report


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease MESH functional status
disease VO population
disease VO report
disease VO frequency
disease IDO symptom
disease VO time
disease MESH Long Covid
disease MESH Infectious Diseases
disease VO effective
disease MESH syndrome
disease MESH sequelae
disease IDO history
disease IDO acute infection
disease MESH cognitive impairment
disease MESH unemployment
disease MESH infections
drug DRUGBANK Isoxaflutole
disease MESH Mental Disorders
disease MESH major depressive disorder
disease IDO infection
drug DRUGBANK Methionine
disease MESH Chronic Disease
disease IDO quality

Original Article

(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)