Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a co-formulated two-in-one inactivated whole virus particle COVID-19/influenza vaccine.

Publication date: Feb 20, 2024

Due to the synchronous circulation of seasonal influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is need for routine vaccination for both COVID-19 and influenza to reduce disease severity. Here, we prepared individual WPVs composed of formalin-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 WK 521 (Ancestral strain; Co WPV) or influenza virus [A/California/07/2009 (X-179A) (H1N1) pdm; Flu WPV] to produce a two-in-one Co/Flu WPV. Serum analysis from vaccinated mice revealed that a single dose of Co/Flu WPV induced antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies against both viruses, similar to those induced by either type of WPV alone. Following infection with either virus, mice vaccinated with Co/Flu WPV showed no weight loss, reduced pneumonia and viral titers in the lung, and lower gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, as observed with individual WPV-vaccinated. Furthermore, a pentavalent vaccine (Co/qFlu WPV) comprising of Co WPV and quadrivalent influenza vaccine (qFlu WPV) was immunogenic and protected animals from severe COVID-19. These results suggest that a single dose of the two-in-one WPV provides efficient protection against SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus infections with no evidence of vaccine interference in mice. We propose that concomitant vaccination with the two-in-one WPV can be useful for controlling both diseases.

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Concepts Keywords
Coronavirus Co
Efficient Coronavirus
Mice Cov
Serum Covid

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