Effects of Aerobic Exercise Therapy through Nordic Walking Program in Lactate Concentrations, Fatigue and Quality-of-Life in Patients with Long-COVID Syndrome: A Non-Randomized Parallel Controlled Trial.

Publication date: Feb 11, 2024

Long-COVID syndrome comprises a variety of signs and symptoms that develop during or after infection with COVID-19 which may affect the physical capabilities. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of Long-COVID syndrome in sport capabilities after suffering from COVID-19 infection. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare lactate concentration and quality of life (QoL) in patients with Long-COVID with those who have not developed non-Long-COVID during Nordic walking exercise therapy. Twenty-nine patients (25. 5 +/- 7. 1 years) took part in a non-randomized controlled trial, divided into two groups: a Long-COVID group (n = 16) and a non-Long-COVID control (n = 13). Patients were confirmed as having Long-COVID syndrome if they experienced fatigue or tiredness when performing daily activities and worsening of symptoms after vigorous physical or mental activity. All participants underwent a 12-week Nordic Walking program. Lactate concentration after exercise and distance covered during all sessions were measured. Pre- and Long-Nordic Walking program, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and EURO QoL-5D (EQ-ED) were administered to assess fatigue and quality of life, respectively. There was a lactate concentration effect between groups (F = 5. 604; p = 0. 024). However, there was no significant effect as a result of the session (F = 3. 521; p = 0. 121) with no interaction of group cD7 session (F = 1. 345; p = 0. 414). The group main effect (F = 23. 088; p < 0. 001), time effect (F = 6. 625; p = 0. 026), and group cD7 time (F = 4. 632; p = 0. 002) interaction on the SF-36 scale were noted. Also, there were a significant group main effect (F = 38. 372; p < 0. 001), time effect (F = 12. 424; p = 0. 005), and group cD7 time interaction (F = 4. 340; p = 0. 014) on EQ-5D. However, there was only a significant group main effect (F = 26. 235; p < 0. 001) with no effect on time (F = 2. 265; p = 0. 160) and group cD7 time (F = 1. 584; p = 0. 234) interaction on the MFIS scale. The Long-COVID group showed higher lactate concentration compared with the control group during the 12 weeks of the Nordic Walking program. The Long-COVID group presented a decrease in fatigue with respect to the control group according to the MFIS scale, as well as improvement in quality of life after aerobic exercise therapy.

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Concepts Keywords
Daily aerobic exercise
Nordic COVID-19
Therapy fatigue
Worsening lactate concentration
Nordic Walking program
quality of life


Type Source Name
disease IDO quality
disease MESH Syndrome
disease MESH infection
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO LACK
disease VO time
drug DRUGBANK L-Valine
disease MESH Long COVID
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease IDO symptom
disease MESH abnormalities
drug DRUGBANK Oxygen
disease MESH Middle East respiratory syndrome
disease MESH acute respiratory distress syndrome
disease MESH weight loss
disease VO population
disease MESH sequelae
disease IDO blood
pathway REACTOME Glycolysis
disease MESH inflammation
drug DRUGBANK Angiotensin II
disease MESH oxidative stress
pathway KEGG Autophagy
pathway KEGG Mitophagy
pathway KEGG Fatty acid metabolism
disease IDO intervention
drug DRUGBANK Lactic Acid
drug DRUGBANK Water
disease MESH muscle fatigue
disease MESH pathological processes
disease MESH encephalitis
disease MESH chronic fatigue syndrome
pathway KEGG Metabolic pathways
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone
disease VO age
disease MESH Reinfection
disease MESH Pneumonia
disease VO vaccination
disease VO protocol
disease MESH respiratory diseases
disease MESH dysautonomia
disease IDO history
disease VO device
disease VO report
disease MESH psychosocial functioning
disease VO ANOVA
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease IDO production
drug DRUGBANK Fibrinogen Human
drug DRUGBANK Dextrose unspecified form
disease MESH multiple myeloma
drug DRUGBANK Epinephrine
disease MESH sweating
disease MESH Dehydration
disease MESH hyperthermia
disease MESH coronary artery disease
disease MESH muscle strength
disease VO biweekly
disease VO effective
disease MESH acidosis
pathway KEGG Coronavirus disease
drug DRUGBANK Gold
disease MESH severe acute respiratory syndrome
drug DRUGBANK Guanosine
disease MESH tumor
disease MESH cytokine storm
disease MESH chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
disease MESH NAFLD
disease MESH systemic lupus erythematosus
pathway KEGG Systemic lupus erythematosus
disease MESH Emergency
drug DRUGBANK Efavirenz
disease MESH chronic pain

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