Persistence in risk and effect of COVID-19 vaccination on long-term health consequences after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Publication date: Feb 26, 2024

The persisting risk of long-term health consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the protection against such risk conferred by COVID-19 vaccination remains unclear. Here we conducted a retrospective territory-wide cohort study on 1,175,277 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection stratified by their vaccination status and non-infected controls to evaluate the risk of clinical sequelae, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality using a territory-wide public healthcare database with population-based vaccination records in Hong Kong. A progressive reduction in risk of all-cause mortality was observed over one year between patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and controls. Patients with complete vaccination or have received booster dose incurred a lower risk of health consequences including major cardiovascular diseases, and all-cause mortality than unvaccinated or patients with incomplete vaccination 30-90 days after infection. Completely vaccinated and patients with booster dose of vaccines did not incur significant higher risk of health consequences from 271 and 91 days of infection onwards, respectively, whilst un-vaccinated and incompletely vaccinated patients continued to incur a greater risk of clinical sequelae for up to a year following SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study provided real-world evidence supporting the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in reducing the risk of long-term health consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its persistence following infection.

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Concepts Keywords
Covid Cause
Database Consequences
Incomplete Cov
Vaccinated Covid


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO vaccination
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease MESH sequelae
disease VO population
disease VO dose
disease MESH cardiovascular diseases
disease VO unvaccinated
disease MESH infection
disease VO vaccinated
disease VO effectiveness
drug DRUGBANK Ranitidine
drug DRUGBANK Etodolac
disease VO organ
disease MESH critically ill
disease IDO acute infection
disease VO time
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease VO monthly
disease IDO primary infection
disease VO CoronaVac
drug DRUGBANK Isoxaflutole
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease VO vaccine
disease MESH Comorbidity
disease MESH morbidities
disease MESH Myocardial infarction
disease MESH heart failure
disease MESH COPD
disease MESH Dementia
disease MESH Ulcers
disease MESH Rheumatoid arthritis
pathway KEGG Rheumatoid arthritis
disease MESH AIDS
disease MESH Malignancy
disease IDO history
drug DRUGBANK Calcium
drug DRUGBANK Nitrate
disease VO age
disease MESH lymphoma
disease VO effective
disease MESH death
disease IDO production
disease MESH chronic diseases
disease MESH stroke
disease MESH seizure
disease MESH obesity
disease MESH vascular disease
disease MESH coronary artery disease
disease MESH acute respiratory distress syndrome
disease MESH ESRD

Original Article

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