An unusual dual sugar-binding lectin domain controls the substrate specificity of a mucin-type O-glycosyltransferase.

Publication date: Mar 01, 2024

N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation, an abundant and complex posttranslational modification that regulates host-microbe interactions, tissue development, and metabolism. GalNAc-Ts contain a lectin domain consisting of three homologous repeats (α, β, and γ), where α and β can potentially interact with O-GalNAc on substrates to enhance activity toward a nearby acceptor Thr/Ser. The ubiquitous isoenzyme GalNAc-T1 modulates heart development, immunity, and SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, but its substrates are largely unknown. Here, we show that both α and β in GalNAc-T1 uniquely orchestrate the O-glycosylation of various glycopeptide substrates. The α repeat directs O-glycosylation to acceptor sites carboxyl-terminal to an existing GalNAc, while the β repeat directs O-glycosylation to amino-terminal sites. In addition, GalNAc-T1 incorporates α and β into various substrate binding modes to cooperatively increase the specificity toward an acceptor site located between two existing O-glycans. Our studies highlight a unique mechanism by which dual lectin repeats expand substrate specificity and provide crucial information for identifying the biological substrates of GalNAc-T1.

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Concepts Keywords
Glycosyltransferase Acceptor
Host Binding
Posttranslational Domain
Sugar Dual
Unknown Galnac


Type Source Name
disease IDO host
pathway REACTOME Metabolism
drug DRUGBANK L-Threonine
drug DRUGBANK Serine
disease IDO infectivity
disease IDO site

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