SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of cell tropism in various organs considering host factors.

Publication date: Feb 29, 2024

A critical step in the drug design for SARS-CoV-2 is to discover its molecular targets. This study comprehensively reviewed the molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, exploring host cell tropism and interaction targets crucial for cell entry. The findings revealed that beyond ACE2 as the primary entry receptor, alternative receptors, co-receptors, and several proteases such as TMPRSS2, Furin, Cathepsin L, and ADAM play critical roles in virus entry and subsequent pathogenesis. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 displays tropism in various human organs due to its diverse receptors. This review delves into the intricate details of receptors, host proteases, and the involvement of each organ. Polymorphisms in the ACE2 receptor and mutations in the spike or its RBD region contribute to the emergence of variants like Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron, impacting the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. The challenge posed by mutations raises questions about the effectiveness of existing vaccines and drugs, necessitating consideration for updates in their formulations. In the urgency of these critical situations, repurposed drugs such as Camostat Mesylate and Nafamostat Mesylate emerge as viable pharmaceutical options. Numerous drugs are involved in inhibiting receptors and host factors crucial for SARS-CoV-2 entry, with most discussed in this review. In conclusion, this study may provide valuable insights to inform decisions in therapeutic approaches.

Concepts Keywords
Organ ACE2
Pathogenicity COVID-19
Pharmaceutical Entry route
Tmprss2 SARS-CoV-2
Valuable Spike

Original Article

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