Type I Interferon Autoantibodies Correlate With Cellular Immune Alterations in Severe COVID-19.

Publication date: Feb 29, 2024

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can lead to severe disease with increased morbidity and mortality among certain risk groups. The presence of autoantibodies against type I interferons (aIFN-Abs) is one mechanism that contributes to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the presence of aIFN-Abs in relation to the soluble proteome, circulating immune cell numbers, and cellular phenotypes, as well as development of adaptive immunity. aIFN-Abs were more prevalent in critical compared to severe COVID-19 but largely absent in the other viral and bacterial infections studied here. The antibody and T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 remained largely unaffected by the presence aIFN-Abs. Similarly, the inflammatory response in COVID-19 was comparable in individuals with and without aIFN-Abs. Instead, presence of aIFN-Abs had an impact on cellular immune system composition and skewing of cellular immune pathways. Our data suggest that aIFN-Abs do not significantly influence development of adaptive immunity but covary with alterations in immune cell numbers.

Concepts Keywords
Bacterial autoantibodies
Coronavirus COVID-19
Covid immunity
Inflammatory interferon
Unaffected

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH Infection
disease VO Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
disease MESH morbidity
disease IDO cell
disease MESH bacterial infections
pathway REACTOME Immune System

Original Article

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