Text analysis of billboards and infographic graphics advertising COVID-19 on promoting preventive behaviors and taking vaccination against the coronavirus pandemic and investigating the opinions of the Iranian adult population.

Publication date: Mar 01, 2024

Advertising is one of the most important solutions that health centers and medical services around the world use to try to encourage public opinion to create a positive attitude towards preventive measures and vaccination. This study has been done with the aim of text analysis of billboards and infographics related to promoting preventive behaviors and vaccination against the coronavirus pandemic and providing solutions and models for preventive information and advertising in the field of health. The study method in this research is a combination of qualitative and content analysis. Data collection was done in a targeted manner. The sample size includes 33 advertising billboards and infographics. Data collection has been done through searching the sites and websites of health networks and medical education centers in Iran, taking pictures of infographics and billboards in public places, and also receiving archive files of pictures from the public relations of health networks and medical services. The data was collected from February 19, 2020 to December 30, 2022 (the time frame of the pandemic and public vaccination program in Iran). The data was analyzed based on the three-dimensional discourse analysis theory of Fairclough. Then, an online survey about promoting preventive behaviors and vaccination against the coronavirus pandemic in the format of billboards and infographics was designed in SurveyMonkey and its link was provided to the audience through virtual networks and other platforms. The age group of people was selected from 18 to 70 years. Considering that the number of participants should be representative of the entire community under investigation, therefore, based on Cochran’s formula, the sample size was equal to 350 people. Finally, users’ opinions were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The assessment of validity involved experts in infection control and linguistics. The reliability of the measurement, determined through the Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient, yielded a coefficient of 0. 968. The results show that among the four linguistic components of words, syntax, coherence and text structure; “live metaphors”, “pronoun “we”, “collocation and reference”, and “attitude markers” have the most impact on the audience. The frequency percentage of the data shows that these language elements have tremendous power in attracting the audience to perform preventive behaviors. The results show that the language reflects the culture, opinions and needs of people in the society. Also, the results show that encouraging people to perform preventive behaviors should be through the integration of medical information with motivational linguistic factors in order to attract the audience more. It can be concluded that the use of the appropriate pattern of medical advertising discourse and correct communication strategies, will help public participation in the field of epidemic control. The language of effective health education and health communication during an epidemic must be related to the ways of thinking and speaking of ordinary people. Also, words with metaphorical and ironic meanings have a high potential to influence the health performance of people in society and increase public awareness of health communication. Therefore, using them to create a new value system with the aim of controlling and overcoming the consequences of the epidemic is very effective.

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Concepts Keywords
December Communication
Iranian Coronavirus
Live Disease prevention
Pandemic Mass media
Vaccination Medical education


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO vaccination
disease VO population
disease VO time
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
disease MESH infection
disease VO frequency
disease VO effective
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
drug DRUGBANK Esomeprazole
disease MESH Infectious diseases
disease IDO history
disease MESH death
disease VO Gap
disease VO effectiveness
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease VO Thing
disease VO efficiency
drug DRUGBANK Isoniazid
disease VO dead
disease IDO entity
disease IDO process
disease IDO object
drug DRUGBANK Polyethylene glycol
disease IDO quality
drug DRUGBANK Tropicamide
drug DRUGBANK Spinosad
disease VO Canada
disease VO vaccine
disease VO vaccinated
disease MESH Clostridium difficile infection
disease MESH viral shedding
disease MESH pneumonia
disease IDO virulence
disease MESH virus infection
disease VO Bacteria
disease VO USA
pathway KEGG Coronavirus disease

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