Boosting with variant-matched adenovirus-based vaccines promotes neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages in mice.

Publication date: Mar 01, 2024

Global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariants, such as BA. 4, BA. 5 and XBB. 1.5, has been leading the recent wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Unique mutations in the spike proteins of these emerging Omicron subvariants caused immune evasion from the pre-existing protective immunity induced by vaccination or natural infection. Previously, we developed AdCLD-CoV19-1, a non-replicating recombinant adenoviral vector that encodes the receptor binding domain of the spike protein of the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain. Based on the same recombinant adenoviral vector platform, updated vaccines that cover unique mutations found in each Omicron subvariant, including BA. 1, BA. 2, BA. 4.1 and BA. 5, were constructed. Preclinical studies revealed that each updated vaccine as a booster shot following primary vaccination targeting the ancestral strain improved neutralizing antibody responses against the pseudovirus of its respective strain most effectively. Of note, boosting with a vaccine targeting the BA. 1 or BA. 2 Omicron subvariant was most effective in neutralization against the pseudovirus of the BA. 2.75 strain, whereas BA. 4.1/5-adapted booster shots were most effective in neutralization against the BQ. 1, BQ1. 1 and BF. 7 strains. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a vaccination strategy that can cover the unique spike mutations of currently circulating Omicron subvariants in order to prevent the next wave of COVID-19.

Concepts Keywords
Adenovirus Adenovirus-based vaccine
Coronavirus COVID-19
Cov19 Neutralizing antibody response
Matched Omicron variants
Mice SARS-CoV-2

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH coronavirus disease 2019
disease VO vaccination
disease MESH infection
disease VO AdCLD-CoV19
disease VO vaccine
disease VO primary vaccination
disease VO effective

Original Article

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