Impacts of optimal control strategies on the HBV and COVID-19 co-epidemic spreading dynamics.

Publication date: Mar 04, 2024

Different cross-sectional and clinical research studies investigated that chronic HBV infected individuals’ co-epidemic with COVID-19 infection will have more complicated liver infection than HBV infected individuals in the absence of COVID-19 infection. The main objective of this study is to investigate the optimal impacts of four time dependent control strategies on the HBV and COVID-19 co-epidemic transmission using compartmental modeling approach. The qualitative analyses of the model investigated the model solutions non-negativity and boundedness, calculated all the models effective reproduction numbers by applying the next generation operator approach, computed all the models disease-free equilibrium point (s) and endemic equilibrium point (s) and proved their local stability, shown the phenomenon of backward bifurcation by applying the Center Manifold criteria. By applied the Pontryagin’s Maximum principle, the study re-formulated and analyzed the co-epidemic model optimal control problem by incorporating four time dependent controlling variables. The study also carried out numerical simulations to verify the model qualitative results and to investigate the optimal impacts of the proposed optimal control strategies. The main finding of the study reveals that implementation of protections, COVID-19 vaccine, and treatment strategies simultaneously is the most effective optimal control strategy to tackle the HBV and COVID-19 co-epidemic spreading in the community.

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Concepts Keywords
Absence Co-epidemic
Covid COVID-19
Liver HBV
Tackle Optimal control measures
Vaccine Protection


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH infection
disease VO time
disease VO effective
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
disease VO COVID-19 vaccine
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease VO vaccine
disease VO vaccination
disease MESH Hepatitis
disease VO Viruses
disease VO Bacteria
disease MESH infectious diseases
disease MESH death
disease MESH liver cirrhosis
disease VO population
disease IDO blood
drug DRUGBANK Medical air
disease MESH tuberculosis
pathway KEGG Tuberculosis
disease MESH AIDS
disease IDO intervention
disease VO vaccination coverage
drug DRUGBANK Guanosine
disease MESH pneumonia
disease MESH malaria
pathway KEGG Malaria
disease MESH co infection
disease MESH cholera
disease VO efficient
disease IDO process
disease IDO host
drug DRUGBANK Polyethylene glycol
disease IDO infectivity
disease VO vaccinated
drug DRUGBANK Sulfachlorpyridazine
drug DRUGBANK Naproxen
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
disease VO D15
disease MESH HIV infection
disease MESH reinfection
disease MESH comorbidity
disease VO effectiveness
drug DRUGBANK Abacavir
disease MESH Reemerging Infectious Diseases
disease MESH tinea capitis

Original Article

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