Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke: how informative is the placenta?

Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke: how informative is the placenta?

Publication date: Mar 19, 2024

Neuroplacentology is an expanding field of interest that addresses the placental influence on fetal and neonatal brain lesions and on further neurodevelopment. The objective of this study was to clarify the link between placental pathology and perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS). Prior publications have reported different types of perinatal stroke with diverse methodologies precluding firm conclusions. We report here the histological placental findings in a series of 16 neonates with radiologically confirmed PAIS. Findings were grouped into 3 categories of lesions: (1) inflammation, (2) placental and fetal hypoxic lesions, and (3) placentas with a high birthweight/placenta weight ratio. Matched control placentas were compared to the pathological placentas when feasible. The eight term singleton placentas were compared to a series of 20 placentas from a highly controlled amniotic membrane donation program; in three twin pregnancies, the placental portions from the affected twin and unaffected co-twin were compared. Slightly more than half (9/16, 56%) had histopathological features belonging to more than one category, a feature shared by the singleton control placentas (13/20, 65%). More severe and extensive lesions were however observed in the pathological placentas. One case occurring in the context of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis further expands the spectrum of COVID-related perinatal disease. Our study supports the assumption that PAIS can result from various combinations and interplay of maternal and fetal factors and confirms the value of placenta examination. Yet, placental findings must be interpreted with caution given their prevalence in well-designed controls.

Concepts Keywords
Birthweight Amsterdam consensus
Fetal Crack cocaine
Informative Drug abuse
Neurodevelopment Neuroplacentology
Pathology PAIS
SARS-CoV-2

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH Drug abuse
drug DRUGBANK Cocaine
disease MESH twin pregnancies
disease MESH inflammation
disease VO report
disease MESH stroke
disease MESH ischemic stroke

Original Article

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