COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients: Immune responses one year after the third dose.

COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients: Immune responses one year after the third dose.

Publication date: Mar 17, 2024

Cancer patients (CPs), being immunosuppressed due to the treatment received or to the disease itself, are more susceptible to infections and their potential complications, showing therefore an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 compared to the general population. We evaluated the immune responses to anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with solid tumors one year after the administration of the third dose and the effect of cancer treatment on vaccine immunogenicity was assessed. Healthy donors (HDs) were enrolled. Binding and neutralizing antibody (Ab) titers were evaluated using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) respectively. T-cell response was analyzed using multiparametric flow cytometry. CPs who were administered three vaccine doses showed lower Ab titers than CPs with four doses and HDs. Overall, a lower cell-mediated response was found in CPs, with a predominance of monofunctional T-cells producing TNF╬▒. Lower Ab titers and a weaker T-cell response were observed in CPs without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection when compared to those with a previous infection. While no differences in the humoral response were found comparing immunotherapy and non-immunotherapy patients, a stronger T-cell response in CPs treated with immunotherapy was observed. Our results emphasize the need of booster doses in cancer patients to achieve a level of protection similar to that observed in healthy donors and underlines the importance of considering the treatment received to reach a proper immune response.

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Concepts Keywords
Donors BNT162b2 vaccine
Immunotherapy Cancer patients
Severe Flow-cytometry
Vaccination Humoral response
Year Neutralizing antibodies
T-cell response

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO vaccination
disease MESH cancer
disease VO dose
disease MESH infections
disease MESH complications
disease VO population
disease VO vaccine
disease IDO cell
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease IDO infection
disease IDO immune response

Original Article

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