Development and preclinical evaluation of equine-derived hyperimmune serum against SARS-CoV-2 infection in K-18 hACE2 transgenic (Tg) mice.

Development and preclinical evaluation of equine-derived hyperimmune serum against SARS-CoV-2 infection in K-18 hACE2 transgenic (Tg) mice.

Publication date: Mar 20, 2024

This study aimed to develop an equine-derived hyperimmune serum against SARS-CoV-2 and evaluate its efficacy as a potential immunotherapy tool for the treatment of known and potential variants of COVID-19 in preclinical trials. The novelty of this study is the whole virus and ALUM gel adjuvant formula. The horses were immunized using a whole inactivated SARS-CoV-2 antigen, and the final purified hyperimmune serum showed high plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT 50) neutralizing titers. The efficacy of the hyperimmune serum was evaluated histopathologically and biochemically in the lungs, hearts, and serum of K18 hACE2 transgenic mice (n=45), which is an accepted model organism for SARS-CoV-2 studies and was challenged with live SARS-CoV-2. Serum treatment improved the general condition, resulting in lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood plasma, as well as reduced viral RNA titers in the lungs and hearts. Additionally, it reduced oxidative stress significantly and lessened the severity of interstitial pneumonia in the lungs when compared to infected positive controls. The study concluded that equine-derived anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies could be used for COVID-19 prevention and treatment, especially in the early stages of the disease and in combination with antiviral drugs and vaccines. This treatment will benefit special patient populations such as immunocompromised individuals, as specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can neutralize the virus before it enters host cells. The rapid and cost-effective production of the serum allows for its availability during the acute phase of the disease, making it a critical intervention in preventing the spread of the disease and saving lives in new variants where a vaccine is not yet developed.

Concepts Keywords
Immunocompromised COVID-19
K18 cytokines
Live equine-derived hyperimmune serum
Mice heart
Pneumonia histology
K18 hACE2 mice
lung
SARS-CoV-2

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH SARS-CoV-2 infection
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease VO immunized
disease IDO organism
disease MESH oxidative stress
disease MESH interstitial pneumonia
disease IDO host
disease VO effective
disease IDO production
disease IDO intervention
disease VO vaccine

Original Article

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