Content and face validity of Workplace COVID-19 Knowledge & Stigma Scale (WoCKSS).

Publication date: Mar 21, 2024

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to fear, rumours, and stigma, particularly against those infected with the virus. In Malaysia, the manufacturing industry is particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 clusters, making it critical to assess stigma attitudes among workers. To address this issue, The Workplace COVID-19 Knowledge & Stigma Scale (WoCKSS) was developed specifically for use in the manufacturing industry which served as the sample population for testing this scale. It was developed in the Malay language to ensure alignment with the local context. This study examines the content and face validity of WoCKSS, which can help assess the level of knowledge and stigma associated with COVID-19 among workers. The WoCKSS was developed with 20 and 31 items for knowledge and stigma domains, respectively, based on an extensive review of COVID-19 literature. Content validation was conducted by four experts using a content validation form to assess the relevancy of each item to the intended construct. Content Validity Index (CVI) was calculated to measure the agreement between the experts on the relevance of each item to the intended construct. Face validation was then conducted by randomly selecting 10 respondents from the manufacturing industry, who rated the clarity and comprehension of each item using a face validation form. The Item Face Validity Index (I-FVI) was calculated to determine the clarity and comprehension of each question, and only items with an I-FVI ≥ 0. 83 were retained. The WoCKSS achieved excellent content validity in both knowledge and stigma domains. Only 19 items from the knowledge domain and 24 items from the stigma domain were retained after CVI analysis. All retained items received a CVI score of 1. 00, indicating perfect agreement among the experts. FVI analysis resulted in 17 items for the knowledge domain and 22 items for the stigma domain. The knowledge domain achieved a high level of agreement among respondents, with a mean I-FVI of 0. 91 and a S-FVI/UA of 0. 89. The stigma domain also showed high agreement, with a mean I-FVI of 0. 99 and a S-FVI/UA of 0. 86. In conclusion, the WoCKSS demonstrated high content and face validity. However, further testing on a larger sample size is required to establish its construct validity and reliability.

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Concepts Keywords
Covid Content validity
Malaysia COVID-19
Randomly Face validity
Virus Knowledge
Workplace Manufacturing industry


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO population
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
disease MESH sore throat
disease IDO production
disease MESH panic
disease MESH anomalies
disease MESH infection
disease VO effective
disease IDO intervention
disease VO Gap
drug DRUGBANK L-Valine
disease IDO process
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH infectious diseases
disease VO company
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease IDO quality
disease VO monthly
disease IDO history
disease MESH chronic diseases
disease VO vaccine
disease VO efficiency
disease MESH educational attainment
disease VO vaccination
disease VO vaccinated
disease VO dose
drug DRUGBANK Esomeprazole
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Iron
disease VO organization
disease MESH pneumonia
disease VO Canada
disease MESH emergency
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone
drug DRUGBANK Abacavir
disease MESH mental Illness
disease MESH Parkinson’s Disease

Original Article

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