A comparative study of anxiety and depression among healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers in Johor, Malaysia during the Covid-19 era.

Publication date: Mar 22, 2024

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has a significant impact on the mental health of the global population. Updates are needed regarding the mental health status among the local population since limited studies were done so far. This research compared the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms among HCWs and non-HCWs. We also evaluated the factors associated with anxiety and depression symptoms among these 2 groups. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between September to December 2022. Online questionnaire was distributed to HCWs from 2 tertiary government hospitals. Non-HCWs from various occupational fields were recruited randomly. Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) were used to screen for anxiety and depression symptoms respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 28. 0. 200 questionnaires were distributed to HCWs and non-HCWs respectively. The response rate was 74. 5% from HCWs and 82. 5% from non-HCWs (P = . 07). A total of 236 individuals (105 HCWs and 131 non-HCWs) were included in the study. Majority were female, married, highly educated and worked more than 8 hours per day. There was no significant difference for the prevalence of anxiety (37. 2% vs 44. 3%, P = . 34) and depression symptoms (37. 3% vs 35. 1%, P = . 75) between HCWs and non-HCWs. Among HCWs, poor workplace support (P = . 009) and low income (P = . 04) were associated with anxiety symptoms. Younger age (P = . 02), single status (P = . 01) and poor workplace support (P = . 006) were associated with depression symptoms. More non-HCWs with a higher educational level were having anxiety and depression symptoms. Single status (P = . 03), working away from home (P = . 02), poor family support (P = . 03) and quarantine as Covid-19 close contact (P = . 04) were also associated with depression symptoms among non-HCWs. There is no significant difference between HCWs and non-HCWs experiencing possible anxiety or depressive symptoms in this study. However, attention should be paid to address associated factors identified among each group to promote good mental health.

Concepts Keywords
Coronavirus Anxiety
December Covid
Depressive Depression
Hospitals Hcws
Ibm Healthcare


Type Source Name
disease MESH Covid-19
disease VO population
disease MESH Anxiety Disorder
disease MESH educational level

Original Article

(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)