Long COVID and financial outcomes: evidence from four longitudinal population surveys.

Publication date: Mar 20, 2024

Long-term sequelae of COVID-19 (long COVID) include muscle weakness, fatigue, breathing difficulties and sleep disturbance over weeks or months. Using UK longitudinal data, we assessed the relationship between long COVID and financial disruption. We estimated associations between long COVID (derived using self-reported length of COVID-19 symptoms) and measures of financial disruption (subjective financial well-being, new benefit claims, changes in household income) by analysing data from four longitudinal population studies, gathered during the first year of the pandemic. We employed modified Poisson regression in a pooled analysis of the four cohorts adjusting for a range of potential confounders, including pre-pandemic (pre-long COVID) factors. Among the 20‚ÄČ112 observations across four population surveys, 13% reported having COVID-19 with symptoms that impeded their ability to function normally-10. 7% had such symptoms for 12 weeks (post-COVID-19 syndrome). We found that post-COVID-19 syndrome was associated with worse subjective financial well-being (adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRRs)=1. 57, 95% CI=1. 25, 1. 96) and new benefit claims (aRRR=1. 79, CI=1. 27, 2. 53). Associations were broadly similar across sexes and education levels. These results were not meaningfully altered when scaled to represent the population by age. Long COVID was associated with financial disruption in the UK. If our findings reflect causal effects, extending employment protection and financial support to people with long COVID may be warranted.

Concepts Keywords
Covid COVID-19


Type Source Name
disease MESH Long COVID
disease VO population
disease MESH sequelae
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH syndrome
disease MESH education levels

Original Article

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