Lymphopenia associated with survivin and its downstream pathway in COVID-19 serving as a potential route in COVID-19 pathogenesis.

Lymphopenia associated with survivin and its downstream pathway in COVID-19 serving as a potential route in COVID-19 pathogenesis.

Publication date: Mar 21, 2024

Starting in 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused an epidemic that was growing rapidly and has harmed millions of people globally. It has been demonstrated that survivin regulates lymphocyte survival, a main route involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Survivin belongs to the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, and its primary functions comprise regulating mitosis and inhibiting apoptosis. Since lower survivin expression has been shown to increase the sensitivity of lymphocytes to apoptotic induction, we looked into the function of survivin and its corresponding pathways in COVID-19 pathogenesis. The expression of survivin, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), caspases 3, 7, 9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was evaluated at both mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from healthy donors and patients with severe and moderate COVID-19 by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Then, we enforced apoptosis to COVID-19 patient-derived lymphocytes, and the percent was assessed by flow cytometry. Survivin and XIAP were less expressed in PBMCs derived from COVID-19 patients as apoptosis inhibitors than PARP, cleaved-PARP, caspase 9, and cleaved caspases 3 and 7, according to the results of real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Additionally, according to the flow cytometry results, the down-regulation of survivin served as a potential factor in the lymphocyte depletion observed in patients with COVID-19. The role of survivin and its related pathway was first discovered in the development of COVID-19 and may serve as a potential prognostic and therapeutic target.

Concepts Keywords
Coronavirus Apoptosis
Depletion Apoptotic pathway
Healthy COVID-19
Pcr Survivin

Original Article

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