Broad immunogenicity to prior SARS-CoV-2 strains and JN.1 variant elicited by XBB.1.5 vaccination in nursing home residents

Publication date: Mar 23, 2024

Background: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has reduced hospitalization and mortality for nursing home residents (NHRs). However, emerging variants coupled with waning immunity, immunosenescence, and variability of vaccine efficacy undermine vaccine effectiveness. We therefore need to update our understanding of the immunogenicity of the most recent XBB.1.5 monovalent vaccine to variant strains among NHRs. Methods: The current study focuses on a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of consented NHRs and HCWs who have received serial blood draws to assess immunogenicity with each SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose. We report data on participants who received the XBB.1.5 monovalent vaccine after FDA approval in Fall 2023. NHRs were classified based on whether they had an interval SARS-CoV-2 infection between their first bivalent vaccine dose and their XBB.1.5 monovalent vaccination. Results: The sample included 61 NHRs [median age 76 (IQR 68-86), 51% female] and 28 HCWs [median age 45 (IQR 31-58), 46% female). Following XBB.1.5 monovalent vaccination, there was a robust geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) in XBB.1.5-specific neutralizing antibody titers of 17.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.3, 32.4) and 11.3 (95% CI 5, 25.4) in NHRs with and without interval infection, respectively. The GMFR in HCWs was 13.6 (95% CI 8.4,22). Similarly, we noted a robust GMFR in JN.1-specific neutralizing antibody titers of 14.9 (95% CI 7.9, 28) and 6.5 (95% CI 3.3, 13.1) among NHRs with and without interval infection, and a GMFR of 11.4 (95% CI 6.2, 20.9) in HCWs. NHRs with interval SARS-CoV-2 infection had higher neutralizing antibody titers across all analyzed strains following XBB.1.5 monovalent vaccination, compared to NHRs without interval infection. Conclusion: The XBB.1.5 monovalent vaccine significantly elevates Omicron-specific neutralizing antibody titers to XBB.1.5 and JN.1 strains in both NHRs and HCWs. This response was more pronounced in individuals known to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 since bivalent vaccination.

Concepts Keywords
Harvard Antibody
Vaccine Cov
Veterans Infection
Interval
Medrxiv
Monovalent
Neutralizing
Nhrs
Preprint
Sars
Strains
Titers
Vaccination
Vaccine
Xbb

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease VO vaccination
disease VO vaccine efficacy
disease VO vaccine effectiveness
disease VO vaccine
disease IDO blood
disease VO vaccine dose
disease VO report
disease MESH SARS-CoV-2 infection
pathway REACTOME SARS-CoV-2 Infection
disease MESH infection
disease MESH Infectious Diseases
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone
disease VO population
disease MESH death
disease IDO assay
disease IDO history
disease VO titer
disease VO dose
disease VO antibody titer

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