Development and Application of a Multidimensional Database for the Detection of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Their Phase I Hepatic Metabolites in Humans.

Development and Application of a Multidimensional Database for the Detection of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Their Phase I Hepatic Metabolites in Humans.

Publication date: Mar 27, 2024

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significantly increased human exposure to the widely used disinfectants quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Xenobiotic metabolism serves a critical role in the clearance of environmental molecules, yet limited data are available on the routes of QAC metabolism or metabolite levels in humans. To address this gap and to advance QAC biomonitoring capabilities, we analyzed 19 commonly used QACs and their phase I metabolites by liquid chromatography-ion mobility-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IM-MS/MS). In vitro generation of QAC metabolites by human liver microsomes produced a series of oxidized metabolites, with metabolism generally occurring on the alkyl chain group, as supported by MS/MS fragmentation. Discernible trends were observed in the gas-phase IM behavior of QAC metabolites, which, despite their increased mass, displayed smaller collision cross-section (CCS) values than those of their respective parent compounds. We then constructed a multidimensional reference SQLite database consisting of m/z, CCS, retention time (rt), and MS/MS spectra for 19 parent QACs and 81 QAC metabolites. Using this database, we confidently identified 13 parent QACs and 35 metabolites in de-identified human fecal samples. This is the first study to integrate in vitro metabolite biosynthesis with LC-IM-MS/MS for the simultaneous monitoring of parent QACs and their metabolites in humans.

Concepts Keywords
Biomonitoring biomonitoring
Hepatic COVID-19
Increased database
Parent disinfectants
Sqlite xenobiotic metabolism

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19 pandemic
pathway REACTOME Metabolism
disease VO Gap
disease VO time

Original Article

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