Identification of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and its receptor.

Publication date: Mar 27, 2024

The T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires exhibits distinct signatures associated with COVID-19 severity. However, the precise identification of vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2-specific TCRs and T-cell immunity mechanisms are unknown. We developed a machine-learning model that can differentiate COVID-19 patients from healthy individuals based on TCR sequence features with an accuracy of 95. 7%. Additionally, we identified SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and TCR in HLA-A*02 vaccinated individuals by peptide stimulation. The SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells exhibited higher cytotoxicity and prolonged survival when targeting spike-pulsed cells in vitro or in vivo. The top-performing TCR was further tested for its affinity and cytotoxic effect against SARS-CoV-2-associated epitopes. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), immune repertoire sequencing (IR-seq) and flow cytometry were used to access vaccine-induced cellular immunity, which demonstrated that robust T cell responses (T cell activation, tissue-resident memory T cell (Trm) generation, and TCR clonal expansion) could be induced by intranasal vaccination. In summary, we identified the SARS-CoV-2-associated TCR repertoires profile, specific TCRs and T cell responses. This study provides a theoretical basis for developing effective immunization strategies.

Concepts Keywords
Covid Immune repertoire
Cytotoxicity SARS-CoV-2
Hematol T cell immunity
Vaccine T cell receptor

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease IDO cell
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO vaccine
disease VO vaccinated
disease VO intranasal vaccination
disease VO effective
disease VO immunization

Original Article

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