Ceftazidime/avibactam serum concentration in patients on ECMO.

Publication date: Mar 28, 2024

The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may alter blood levels of several drugs, including antibiotics, leading to under dosing of these drugs and thus to potential treatment failure. No data exist on pharmacokinetics of new antimicrobial, in particular ceftazidime/avibactam. We therefore perform this study to evaluate ceftazidime/avibactam blood levels in ECMO patients and find factors associated with underdosing. Retrospective observational study of patients on ECMO having received ceftazidime/avibactam and in whom trough blood levels of ceftazidime and avibactam were available. Main outcome measurement was the number of patients with ceftazidime and avibactam blood levels above predefined cut-off values, derived from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints for Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, namely 8 mg/L for ceftazidime and 4 mg/L for avibactam, and explored factors associated with underdosing. Twenty-three ceftazidime/avibactam trough levels were available in 14 ECMO patients, all of them having received veno-venous ECMO for SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia. Although ceftazidime levels were above 8 mg/L in all except one patient, nine (39%) of the avibactam dosages were below 4 mg/L. Increased renal clearance (creatinine clearance > 130 mL/min) was the main factor associated with under dosing, since 7 out of the 10 dosages below the predefined cut-offs were measured in patients with this condition. In ECMO patients receiving ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftazidime and avibactam serum levels are above EUCAST breakpoints in most cases, justifying the use of normal dosing in ECMO patients. Increased renal clearance may lead to ceftazidime and avibactam under dosing.

Concepts Keywords
Dosages Antimicrobial
Enterobacteriaceae Avibactam
Pharmacokinetics Blood
Pneumonia Ceftazidime
Renal Clearance
Dosing
Drugs
Ecmo
Factors
Main
Mg
Received
Serum
Underdosing

Semantics

Type Source Name
drug DRUGBANK Ceftazidime
drug DRUGBANK Avibactam
disease IDO blood
disease MESH treatment failure
disease IDO susceptibility
disease MESH pneumonia
drug DRUGBANK Creatinine

Original Article

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