Risk Factors for COVID-19 and Respiratory Tract Infections during the Coronavirus Pandemic.

Publication date: Mar 19, 2024

(1) Background: Some individuals are more susceptible to developing respiratory tract infections (RTIs) or coronavirus disease (COVID-19) than others. The aim of this work was to identify risk factors for symptomatic RTIs including COVID-19 and symptomatic COVID-19 during the coronavirus pandemic by using infection incidence, participant baseline, and regional COVID-19 burden data. (2) Methods: Data from a prospective study of 1000 frontline healthcare workers randomized to Bacillus Calmette-GucE9rin vaccination or placebo, and followed for one year, was analyzed. Parametric time-to-event analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with (a) non-specific symptomatic respiratory tract infections including COVID-19 (RTIs+COVID-19) and (b) symptomatic RTIs confirmed as COVID-19 using a polymerase chain reaction or antigen test (COVID-19). (3) Results: Job description of doctor or nurse (median hazard ratio [HR] 1. 541 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1. 299-1. 822), the reported COVID-19 burden (median HR 1. 361 and 95% CI 1. 260-1. 469 for 1. 4 COVID-19 cases per 10,000 capita), or a BMI > 30 kg/m (median HR 1. 238 and 95% CI 1. 132-1. 336 for BMI of 35. 4 kg/m) increased the probability of RTIs+COVID-19, while positive SARS-CoV-2 serology at enrollment (median HR 0. 583 and 95% CI 0. 449-0. 764) had the opposite effect. The reported COVID-19 burden (median HR 2. 372 and 95% CI 2. 116-2. 662 for 1. 4 COVID-19 cases per 10,000 capita) and a job description of doctor or nurse (median HR 1. 679 and 95% CI 1. 253-2. 256) increased the probability of developing COVID-19, while smoking (median HR 0. 428 and 95% CI 0. 284-0. 648) and positive SARS-CoV-2 serology at enrollment (median HR 0. 076 and 95% CI 0. 026-0. 212) decreased it. (4) Conclusions: Nurses and doctors with obesity had the highest probability of developing RTIs including COVID-19. Non-smoking nurses and doctors had the highest probability of developing COVID-19 specifically. The reported COVID-19 burden increased the event probability, while positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology at enrollment decreased the probability of RTIs including COVID-19, and COVID-19 specifically.

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Concepts Keywords
Coronavirus COVID-19
Nurses pharmacometrics
Vaccination respiratory tract infections
risk factors
time-to-event analysis


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH Respiratory Tract Infections
pathway KEGG Coronavirus disease
disease IDO infection incidence
disease VO vaccination
disease VO time
disease MESH obesity
disease MESH Allergy
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH bacterial infections
disease MESH influenza
disease MESH tuberculosis
pathway KEGG Tuberculosis
disease MESH infection
disease IDO blood
disease MESH hypertension
disease MESH respiratory diseases
disease MESH chronic conditions
disease MESH COPD
disease MESH asthma
pathway KEGG Asthma
drug DRUGBANK BCG vaccine
disease MESH measles
pathway KEGG Measles
disease VO Gap
disease MESH morbidity
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone
disease IDO history
disease IDO assay
disease MESH latent infection
disease VO vaccine
disease VO population
disease MESH Diabetes mellitus
disease MESH Latent tuberculosis infection
disease VO protocol
disease MESH death
drug DRUGBANK Vildagliptin
disease MESH cardiovascular disease
disease VO Psn
drug DRUGBANK Ibuprofen
drug DRUGBANK Ademetionine
disease MESH overweight
drug DRUGBANK Serine
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease MESH chronic kidney disease
disease IDO immunosuppression
disease MESH pneumonia
drug DRUGBANK Sulfasalazine
disease MESH Lifestyle Factors
disease MESH Virus Infection
disease MESH Etiology
disease VO pregnant women
disease MESH Rhinitis
drug DRUGBANK Ethanol
disease IDO susceptibility
disease MESH Common Cold
disease VO Optaflu
disease MESH Uncertainty
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Nicotine
disease MESH Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

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