The multi-dimensional challenges of controlling respiratory virus transmission in indoor spaces: Insights from the linkage of a microscopic pedestrian simulation and SARS-CoV-2 transmission model.

Publication date: Mar 28, 2024

SARS-CoV-2 transmission in indoor spaces, where most infection events occur, depends on the types and duration of human interactions, among others. Understanding how these human behaviours interface with virus characteristics to drive pathogen transmission and dictate the outcomes of non-pharmaceutical interventions is important for the informed and safe use of indoor spaces. To better understand these complex interactions, we developed the Pedestrian Dynamics-Virus Spread model (PeDViS): an individual-based model that combines pedestrian behaviour models with virus spread models that incorporate direct and indirect transmission routes. We explored the relationships between virus exposure and the duration, distance, respiratory behaviour, and environment in which interactions between infected and uninfected individuals took place and compared this to benchmark ‘at risk’ interactions (1. 5 metres for 15 minutes). When considering aerosol transmission, individuals adhering to distancing measures may be at risk due to build-up of airborne virus in the environment when infected individuals spend prolonged time indoors. In our restaurant case, guests seated at tables near infected individuals were at limited risk of infection but could, particularly in poorly ventilated places, experience risks that surpass that of benchmark interactions. Combining interventions that target different transmission routes can aid in accumulating impact, for instance by combining ventilation with face masks. The impact of such combined interventions depends on the relative importance of transmission routes, which is hard to disentangle and highly context dependent. This uncertainty should be considered when assessing transmission risks upon different types of human interactions in indoor spaces. We illustrated the multi-dimensionality of indoor SARS-CoV-2 transmission that emerges from the interplay of human behaviour and the spread of respiratory viruses. A modelling strategy that incorporates this in risk assessments can help inform policy makers and citizens on the safe use of indoor spaces with varying inter-human interactions.

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Concepts Keywords
Pedestrian Behaviour
Pharmaceutical Cov
Restaurant Individuals
Target Indoor
Viruses Interactions
Interventions
Pedestrian
Respiratory
Risk
Routes
Sars
Spaces
Spread
Transmission
Virus

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease MESH infection
disease IDO pathogen
drug DRUGBANK Tropicamide
disease VO time
disease MESH uncertainty
disease VO Viruses
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
disease IDO history
disease IDO process
pathway REACTOME Reproduction
disease IDO host
disease IDO intervention
disease VO population
disease VO effective
disease IDO susceptibility
disease VO efficiency
disease MESH COVID 19 pandemic
disease VO frequency
disease IDO fomite
drug DRUGBANK Spinosad
disease VO effectiveness
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
drug DRUGBANK Mexiletine
drug DRUGBANK Medical air
disease VO dose
drug DRUGBANK Acetylcholine
disease MESH secondary infections
disease VO efficient
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
drug DRUGBANK Aminacrine
drug DRUGBANK Dichloroacetic Acid
drug DRUGBANK Abacavir
disease MESH emergency
disease MESH infectious diseases
disease MESH chicken pox
disease IDO replication
drug DRUGBANK Isoxaflutole
disease IDO infectivity
disease VO volume
disease IDO infectious agent
disease IDO cell
disease VO viability
disease IDO country
disease VO PreM
disease VO Canada
drug DRUGBANK Carboxyamidotriazole
disease VO manufacturing
drug DRUGBANK Cysteamine
disease IDO quality
disease IDO facility
disease VO USA
drug DRUGBANK Oxygen
disease MESH obesity
disease VO publication
drug DRUGBANK Delorazepam
drug DRUGBANK Flunarizine
disease IDO virulence
disease MESH Virus Infection
drug DRUGBANK Pirenzepine
disease IDO object
disease MESH asymptomatic infection
disease MESH tuberculosis
pathway KEGG Tuberculosis

Original Article

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