Establishment of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus recapitulating SADS-CoV entry.

Establishment of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus recapitulating SADS-CoV entry.

Publication date: Apr 01, 2024

Zoonotic coronaviruses pose a continuous threat to human health, with newly identified bat-borne viruses like swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) causing high mortality in piglets. In vitro studies indicate that SADS-CoV can infect cell lines from diverse species, including humans, highlighting its potential risk to human health. However, the lack of tools to study viral entry, along with the absence of vaccines or antiviral therapies, perpetuates this threat. To address this, we engineered an infectious molecular clone of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), replacing its native glycoprotein (G) with SADS-CoV spike (S) and inserting a Venus reporter at the 3′ leader region to generate a replication-competent rVSV-Venus-SADS S virus. Serial passages of rVSV-Venus-SADS S led to the identification of an 11-amino-acid truncation in the cytoplasmic tail of the S protein, which allowed more efficient viral propagation due to increased cell membrane anchoring of the S protein. The S protein was integrated into rVSV-Venus-SADS SΔ11 particles, susceptible to neutralization by sera from SADS-CoV S1 protein-immunized rabbits. Additionally, we found that TMPRSS2 promotes SADS-CoV spike-mediated cell entry. Furthermore, we assessed the serum-neutralizing ability of mice vaccinated with rVSV-Venus-SADS SΔ11 using a prime-boost immunization strategy, revealing effective neutralizing antibodies against SADS-CoV infection. In conclusion, we have developed a safe and practical tool for studying SADS-CoV entry and exploring the potential of a recombinant VSV-vectored SADS-CoV vaccine. IMPORTANCEZoonotic coronaviruses, like swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), pose a continual threat to human and animal health. To combat this, we engineered a safe and efficient tool by modifying the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), creating a replication-competent rVSV-Venus-SADS S virus. Through serial passages, we optimized the virus for enhanced membrane anchoring, a key factor in viral propagation. This modified virus, rVSV-Venus-SADS SΔ11, proved susceptible to neutralization, opening avenues for potential vaccines. Additionally, our study revealed the role of TMPRSS2 in SADS-CoV entry. Mice vaccinated with rVSV-Venus-SADS SΔ11 developed potent neutralizing antibodies against SADS-CoV. In conclusion, our work presents a secure and practical tool for studying SADS-CoV entry and explores the promise of a recombinant VSV-vectored SADS-CoV vaccine.

Concepts Keywords
Bat replication-competent
Coronaviruses SADS-CoV
Diarrhea viral entry
Efficient VSV
Venus VSV-vectored vaccine

Semantics

Type Source Name
disease IDO replication
disease VO Viruses
disease MESH syndrome
disease IDO cell
disease VO LACK
disease VO Glycoprotein
disease VO efficient
disease VO immunized
disease VO vaccinated
disease VO immunization
disease VO effective
disease MESH infection
disease VO vaccine

Original Article

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